Restful API Tutorial With Lumen Laravel 5.5 For Beginners

Lumen is the best PHP framework to build the Restful API. Lumen was developed by Taylor Otwell, the developer behind the most popular PHP framework today, Laravel. You could say, Lumen is a derivative of Laravel. The following tutorial will discuss what Lumen and the tutorial create a restful API using Lumen 5.5.

If previously I discussed the article about the Slim framework, Lumen has the same goal, which is a micro-framework tasked to build APIs easily, quickly and efficiently. Besides, Lumen can handle 1900 requests per second like the picture below.

Lumen Request Persecond Image

The advantages of Lumen framework itself in my experience are:

  • Many features such as middleware authentication.
  • Strong MVC concept.
  • Migrate and eloquent features that speed up the creation and query of databases

Many people say that Laravel is a heavy PHP framework, but Lumen is created with speed and simplify of the features in Laravel. In this article, we will prove how quickly and easily make the API use Lumen Framework.

Another tutorial : How To Load All Data Before Rendering View Component In Angular 4

Prepare to create a web API with lumen 5.5

System Requirement

Before starting the creation of the API, there are some requirements that must be fulfilled, so that Lumen framework 5.5 runs well on the server

PHP 7.0
OpenSSL PHP Extension
PDO PHP Extension
Mbstring PHP Extension


To install Lumen is quite easy, using a composer you just need to run the following script


Before running Lumen, there are some configurations in the  .env  file that must be adjusted. Open the  .env  file, while the default file is as follows.

Unlike Laravel,   APP_KEY  has not filled automatically. You can fill  APP_KEY  manually.

Then the  APP_TIMEZONE  option. Adjust to the time zone of application used. I am as an Indonesian developer using timezone “Asia/Jakarta.” You can see the timezone list here.

Lumen Early Installation Test

Lumen does not provide tools to run a built-in web server like Laravel (PHP artisan serve). We can use the built-in web server directly with PHP.

or you can copy the entire Lumen project into the HTML (/var/www/html/) or htdocs folder (inside the XAMPP folder) and run it as usual.

Till this step, the preparation of the Web API using the Lumen 5.5 framework has been completed. The next step we will create a simple REST API Lumen where the API server is used for new user registration, login application and get API_TOKEN to retrieve user data using token authentication.


Creating a Simple REST API Using the Lumen 5.5 Framework For Beginners

Please edit the  boostrap / app.php  file. Here we will activate the auth and eloquent feature. Eliminate some comments like the following:

By default the Facades and Eloquent features are removed so that Lumen can work faster.

Migration Lumen

Database migration is one of the features to create database schema quickly and easily. For the simple application of REST API, we will create schema table for the user.

Make sure the file is formed like the following image in the folder database/migrations/

Create Migration File Lumen Tutorial For Beginners Min

Edit the above file and add the following schema:

When done, migrate with the following command:

Check your database through phpmyadmin and see if the users table has been established?

Creating a Model of the Lumen 5.5 Framework

After creating the migration automatically, then the model for the user has been formed in the folder /app/User.php. To understand more about the model, please read at Make sure the User configuration is as follows:


In Laravel, there are some special variables that are used to configure table settings in the database. As the example above is the variable  $fillable  $hidden  . And much more like  $primaryKey  $timestamps  that you can read at

$fillable  is a variable that serves to grant any column permissions from this users’ table that we can use.

$hidden  works to prevent certain fields from being displayed when we query to get all data from columns in database users.

Creating a Controller In Lumen Framework

Unfortunately, php artisan does not provide a feature to make the controller automatically. So we will create the controller manually. The lumen controller is the same as Laravel that works to be used as business logic of the application.

Although lumen does not provide the feature of creating the controller automatically, Lumen provides  exampleController.php  which can be used as a mock-up to create a new controller.

First of all we will create a UserController located within the folder  /app/Http/Controller/  . Please copy the following code and paste it in the UserController.php:

Add the following code in the  Controller.php  in the folder  /app/Http/Controllers/

A brief description:

The above example we will create the registration method in the UserController class. The registration method is used to register the new user.

Before the new user is created, Lumen will validate the parameters needed to register the new user.

For Lumen validation to return the json response format, we will inject the buildFailedValidationResponse function in the Controller.php in the  /app/Http/Controllers/ folder. The Controller.php file is the parent class of the UserController we have created.

To perform a database query, we need to apply a try catch handle to handle the response if there is an error while querying the database. The try catch template in Lumen like the following code

The next step is to create  LoginController.php  which is used as the login controller. Copy the following code in  LoginController.php.

A brief description :

Users will login by email. The server will checks whether the email used for login has been registered in the database or not.

If it has been registered, Lumen will match whether the password recorded on the database is the same as the password sent by the user using the following function

If the login has been successful, the Server will establish a new token to be updated into the database and returned as a response.

Up to this point the tutorial create controller on Lumen API for beginners has been completed. The next stage is the last step where we will make routes that work to handle our request in Url, then direct the application to call the page.

Creating a Lumen Framework Routing

The Route in the Lumen 5.5 framework is located in the folder  routes/web.php  file. Please copy the following code on web.php:

In the last line the code above the route will use the authenticate middleware used to verify access token from the user. This middleware function is used to deny sources that don’t have access to a particular request

API token validation with Middleware

According to the laravel official website, HTTP middleware is

HTTP middleware provides a convenient mechanism for filtering HTTP requests entering your application

So middleware authentication is a function that runs before this request gets into the controller. Middleware will check whether the user has permission to access the API.

We have enabled Authenticate middleware in the initial configuration above on the  bootstrap/app.php  file

Then add the following authentication code inside the authentication middleware that Lumen has prepared in the  app/Http/Middleware/Authenticate.php  folder

Up to this point the creation of REST API Using Lumen 5.5 For beginners has been completed, the next step is testing API

Testing Lumen Rest API using POSTMAN

User registration

Registration New User Lumen Api Framework For Beginners

Login user

Login User Tutorial Lumen 5.5 For Beginner With Example Project

Get all user with api_token

Get All User With Api Token Tutorial Laravel Lumen 5.5 Step By Step

Up to this point, tutorial lumen 5.5 for beginners has been completed, to download the full project please use the following link

Thus my tutorial about Restful API Tutorial With Lumen Laravel 5.5 For Beginners, Hopefully useful

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This site is a personal Blog of Sigit Prasetya Nugroho, a Desktop developer and freelance web developer working in PHP, MySQL, WordPress.

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